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A Civil Jump-Jet

In the July/ August 2013 issue of the Bulletin retired Head of Flight Test at Dunsfold, CHRIS FARARA took a look back at one of the Museum's exhibits - the two-seat Harrier demonstrator.

A long-time resident of the   Brooklands Museum’s ‘Wellington Hangar’ is a grey and white Harrier two-seater.  This aircraft is Hawker Siddeley Aviation’s (HSA) Harrier Mk52 demonstrator, usually referred to by its civil registration, G-VTOL (pronounced ‘gee veetol’), one of the first in the UK register to be ‘personalised’.

 

Manufacture of the aircraft was funded jointly by HSA and its Harrier suppliers which provided equipment on loan or free of charge, including Rolls-Royce   Bristol which supplied engines.   Assembled at HSA Kingston, G-VTOL was the 12th two-seater and made its first flight, from Dunsfold, with Duncan Simpson in September 1971 and soon became the world’s first jet V/STOL (Vertical/Short Take Off and Landing) aircraft with a civil Certificate of Airworthiness. Equipped with airliner-standard communications and navigation equipment G-VTOL was ready to fly the airways of the world.

 

It was a striking sight in its patriotic red, white, and   blue   livery designed   by   Harrier   Chief Designer John Fozard. Soon it would appear in desert camouflage and later in naval grey and white, as the marketing emphasis changed.  It would also wear the military serial ZA250 to allow the carriage of trials weapons, not permitted on civil aircraft.  The primary purpose of the aircraft was to enable potential customers’ pilots and influential officials to experience Harrier flight first-hand under the guidance of a company pilot and so demonstrate the many outstanding and unique qualities of the type and show that an ordinary, suitably experienced pilot, could fly it. 

G-VTOL nearly came to a premature end when it over-ran the 7,000ft Dunsfold runway on flight 12, just   three   weeks after   its first flight.  

Event image

Brooklands volunteer Mike Craddock, then a flight development engineer at Dunsfold, was in

the rear cockpit. However, it was ready again in May 1972, repainted in desert camouflage, and set off in June, with Tony Hawkes and John Farley, on a delayed Middle East and India ales tour managed by Kingston marketing executive Johnnie Johnson, accompanied by the sales and maintenance teams in an Avro 748.  Marketing stops were made at Tehran and Kuwait before  setting off for Bombay and Cochin, hampered by the monsoon weather activity. From the Cochin base the aircraft was flown aboard the Indian Navy carrier INS Vikrant by Farley. In two days, he flew 17 sorties from the ship plus two return trips from Cochin to Vikrant. The first days’ operations were to establish handling and performance data relevant to the ship and local conditions (a Dunsfold flight test team led by Eric Crabbe had flown out) and the second day was devoted to flying Indian Navy pilots. Next, interrupted by ‘Ski jump’ trials at RAE Bedford the heavy monsoon rains, G-VTOL left Cochin, with an IN officer on board, for Goa and thence to Delhi, demonstrating a low-level mission requested by the IN. In Delhi there was more IN pilot familiarisation with Hawkes and Dunsfold test pilot Andy Jones who had replaced Farley in the team. From Delhi G-VTOL flew via Bombay and Mashrah to Abu Dhabi, one of the Emirates on the Persian Gulf.

 

A demonstration by Hawkes to the Ruler and Minister of Defence had been organised to take place at a semi-prepared strip near Al Ain.  Whilst  hovering  in  front  of  the assembled  VIPs  a  cloud  of  dust  engulfed  the aircraft and, instead of climbing away, the pilot reversed  into  the  cloud,  hit  the  ground  with  a thud and broke an outrigger and the nose leg... end of tour. G-VTOL was flown back to Dunsfold in a Canadair CL-44 Guppy to be repaired and John Farley returned to the Middle East and demonstrated the GR Mk1 to show that there was nothing fundamentally wrong with the aircraft.

 

Harriers were never sold in that region, but the Indian Navy did eventually become a large  customer for the Sea Harrier. South America G-VTOL flew again in February 1973, did a lot of pilot familiarisation work and made the first of many appearances at the Le Bourget Paris Air Show. It was then air-freighted to Rio de Janeiro where it was assembled, and air tested prior to an extensive tour of South America managed by John Parker, Kingston’s South American marketing executive, and flown by John Farley and Don Riches. The tour ran from 12th September to 19th October   carrying   out   demonstrations, pilot familiarisations   and   even   carrier   operations  during 62 flights.  The route was Brazil:  Galeo (Rio), San José (Sao Paulo), Santa Cruz, San Pedro, Galeo.   Paraguay:   Asuncion.   Bolivia: Cochabamba. Peru: Lima. Ecuador: Guayaquil, Quito, Guayaquil, Quito. Peru: Lima, Las Palmas, Lima where the aircraft was broken down for  return to Dunsfold in a CL-44 Guppy. The Sao Paulo Air Show was attended and the Brazilian Navy carrier, Minas Gerais, was visited from Santa Cruz.  In spite of generating great technical interest in the Harrier no orders resulted from the tour, but spectacular publicity photographs were obtained including G-VTOL flying past the Corcovada statue of Christ at Rio and hovering in front of the enormous airship hangar at Santa Cruz.  

Next, in November, a group of French naval aviators was familiarised in preparation for trials on the French Navy carrier Foch, with John Farley again, and later that month G-VTOL was flying from HMS Bulwark. In January 1974 it was off to Algeria, in May it was Italy, September the Farnborough Show where the BBC’s Raymond Baxter broadcast from the back seat during a  Farley demonstration.  Throughout its flying career UK demonstrations and pilot familiarisations were interspersed with the more exciting overseas   and   development   work.   In   1975  G-VTOL flew from HMS Engadine, HMS Bulwark and HMS Fearless, attended the Paris Air Show and   trained   McDonnell-Douglas   test   pilots Charlie Plummer and Bill Lowe in the art of jet V/STOL flying. 1976 was a year of UK ‘demos and famils’ but in 1977 G-VTOL was flying from HMS Hermes on Harrier CA Release trials and helping celebrate the launching of HMS Invincible, the Sea Harrier’s future home, over Barrow-in-Furness, and demonstrating from HMAS Melbourne.

 

In October G-VTOL participated in the ski-jump trials in progress at RAE Bedford with the ramp at nine degrees; in 1978 the angle was increased through 15 to 17½ degrees and in September the first public ski-jump demonstrations were flown at   the   Farnborough   Air   Show   on   a   ramp constructed by the Royal Engineers from medium girder bridge components. This was the highlight of the show. In November there were more CA Release trials on HMS Hermes now that she was fitted with a 12½-degree ski-jump. In 1979 Bedford ski-jump trials were completed with the ramp set to what seemed an impossibly large exit angle of 20 degrees, but the Harrier still flew easily and effortlessly away.  The Royal Engineers   erected   their   Fairey   Engineering medium girder bridge ski-jump at Le Bourget for the Paris Air Show in June and G-VTOL stole the show again. The year finished with another trip to HMS Hermes.

1980 was a quiet year, with servicing at HSA, Holme-on-Spalding   Moor, but   G-VTOL   did appear at the Farnborough Air Show and was evaluated by the Brazilian Air Force. In 1981-82 G-VTOL was flown by Indonesian, Chilean, Japanese and Indian pilots, and in 1982-83 a large number of Indian Navy pilots were fully trained flying from Dunsfold, RNAS Yeovilton d HMS Hermes in preparation for that service’s receipt of Sea Harriers. Swiss Air Force pilots flew G-VTOL in 1984 and there was much chase flying for various Harrier and Hawk development  and production  programmes.  In  1985  there  were trials  concerned  with  the  development  of  the ‘Skyhook’  concept  (a  stabilised  ship-mounted crane for catching hovering Harriers) and a ‘photo opportunity’  publicity  stunt  hovering  with  the British Aerospace privatisation share price painted underneath. As hoped for by the management, these photographs were published in all the national daily newspapers gaining wide publicity for the share issue. Pilot training for a Rolls-Royce test pilot, familiarisation flying for an Australian and various chase tasks brought G-VTOL’s long and valuable career to a close on 19th February 1986 with 1,389 flights and 721 hours 33 minutes in the logbook.  

This historic aircraft is now a popular exhibit at Brooklands   where   an   enthusiastic   band   of  volunteers keep her in pristine condition and her systems live.